Guess Papers for FSC Pre Engineering Part 2 2016
Chemistry Short Guess Paper FSC 12th Class 2016
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Guess Paper of Chemistry FSC Part 2 Important Short Questions
How semi-conductors are used in transistors? OR Why diamond is non-conductor and graphite is fairly a good conductor of electricity?
Define electron affinity. Discuss its trend in periodic table. OR Explain electron gas theory. OR Define the term Electron affinity. OR Why Pt electron affinity is negative and 2nd is positive?
Why lime water becomes milky when CO2 is passed through it? OR Why lime is added to acidic soil? OR What is a lime mortar and what changes occur when it hardens during hydrolysis? OR How lime and sand are used to make glass? OR How lime mortar is prepared? Explain with chemical equations.
KO2 is used by mountaineers. Discuss. OR Why KO2 is used in breathing equipments by mountaineers and astronauts?
How Plaster of Paris is formed? OR What is plaster of paris? Give its two applications.
Give two methods for preparation of PCt 3.
Write two reactions in which ILSO4 acts as dehydrating agent. OR Oil of vitriol is extensively used in industrial processes. However, it can also be used as dehydrating agent Give two examples of this property. OR P205 is a powerful dehydrating agent. Give Two examples.
Write two points of dissimilarities of oxygen and sulphur. OR Give four dissimilarities of oxygen and sulphur.
Write four uses of halogens. OR Halogens form a homologous series but fluorine differs from the other halogens in many respects. Discuss. OR Explain the reactivities of the halogens as oxidizing agents. OR All the tree halogens act as oxidizing agent when they react with metals or non-metals. Give order of oxidizing power of halogens. Also briefly explain the factors. OR Why oxidizing power of F2 is higher than other halogens? OR Describe factors of acidic strength of oxyacids of halogens.
Give the reaction of chromyl chloride test. OR Explain chromyl chloride test.
Give four uses of methane. OR Convert methane into: (i) Formaldehyde (ii) Nitromethane
Prepare ethane from: (i) Ethyl alcohol (ii) Ethylchloride
Write down formulas for Bauxite and Corundum.
What is Chemistry of Borax-bead Test? OR How the grassy mass is produced from borax? OR How is Boric acid prepared from borax? Give reaction. OR How is borax prepared from colemanite? Only give reaction with the balanced equation. OR How borax is commercially prepared? Give two methods of preparation. OR Briefly explain the Borax bead test and its chemistry. OR Write four uses of borax. OR How aqueous solution of borax is alkaline? OR Flow will you convert boric acid into borax and vice versa?
Define Tautomerism and give one example.
What are Alicyclic and Aromatic Compounds? Give one example in each.
Briefly describe X-rays studies of benzene structure.
Define resonance energy. OR Define resonance and write down resonance structures of benzene. OR How will you prepare m-chloronitro benzene? OR Convert benzene into cyclo hexane. OR Define resonance and write down resonance structures of benzene. OR Benzene can be prepared commercially from acetylcn Give reaction with conditions. OR Write down mechanism for halogenation of benzene. OR Give reaction of:(a) Phenol with zinc, (b) Benzene with S03. OR How will you synthesize. following compounds from ethyne: (a) Benzene. (b) Chloroprene. OR Define resonance energy. Give resonance energy of benzene. OR Prepare benzene from acetylene. OR What does happen to benzene during Friedel Craft reaction? Give mechanism of one reaction. OR How benzene can be converted into meta chloronitrobenzene?
Define nucleophile and electrophile. Give one example in each.
What are primary and secondary alcohols? Give one example in each. OR How will you distinguish among the Primary, Secondary and Tertiary alcohols? Give a chemical test. OR How primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols are identified? OR How the reduction process Of aldehydes and ketones give alcohols?
How methanol is prepared from water gas? OR Show by diagram the industrial preparation of Methanol. OR Give preparation of methanol by reaction of CO and H
Write down formulas of malonic acid and oxalic acid. OR Write down structural formulae of Phrhalic Acid ar Malonic Acid.
How carboxylic acids are prepared by thp oxidative cleavage of alkenes. OR Prepare alcohol and alkane from carboxylic acid.
How aldehyde reacts with phenyl hydrazing? Give its mechanism.
What is Tollen Test? Illustrate your answer with chemical equation. OR How are aldehydes identified by Tollen’s test?
Explain oxidation of aldehyde. OR Why is the oxidation state of noble gases usually zero? OR Why oxidation number of noble gases is usually zero? OR Why transition elements have variable oxidation state? OR Justify that Cannizzaro’s reaction is self-oxidation reduction reaction. OR Why the elements of group VI-A other than oxygen show more than two oxidation states? OR Reaction of alkali metal oxide with water is an acid base reaction not oxidation-reduction reaction. Explain.
How acetaldehyde distinguish from formaldehyde? OR Give the uses of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. OR How formaldehyde and acetaldehyde undergo polymerization? OR How can acetaldehyde be prepared by the dry distillation of a mixture having calcium salt of formic and acetic acid? OR How acetaldehydes distinguish from formaldehyde? OR Give reactions of acetaldehyde with (a) HCN (b) CH3—CH2-0H OR Prepare lactic acid from acetaldehyde.
Convert acetaldehyde to lactic acid. OR Give formulas of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. OR How formaldehyde and acetaldehyde undergo polymerization? OR How iodoform is prepared from acetaldehyde and ethyl alcohol?
Define polymerization. Explain the term degree of polymerization. OR What is Condensation polymerization? Give an example. OR Explain the process of Polymerization?
Define acid number. What is rancidity? OR What is rancidity of fats and oils? OR What is meant by rancidity of fats and oils?
What are essential nutrients element and why these are needed? OR What are macronutrients? Give their names. OR What are micro nutrients?
How ammonium nitrate is prepared. Describe the process. OR What happen when following compounds are heated: (a) Ammonium acetate, (b) Calcium acetate.
Write the structure of starch.OR How ethyl alcohol is obtained by the fermentation of molasses and starch?
How do you justify the position of hydrogen at the top of alkali metals? OR In what respects hydrogen resembles with those of group IV-A elements? OR How does hydrogen resemble with alkali metals? write any four points. OR Define hydrogenation. Give its two applications. OR Write reactions of two metals which evolve hydrogen upon reaction with HNO3.
Give four points in which Lithium differ from its own family members. OR Why does lithium differ froni its own family members? OR Prove decomposition of lithium nitrate, give different products than nitrates of other alkali metals.
Give the name of four elements which do not react with nitric acid. OR Give the reaction of dilute nitric acid with (a) Magnesium (b) Copper. OR Write down the preparation of Nitric Acid and also. OR Write any four uses of nitric acid. OR How does nitric acid oxidize the non-metals. Give three examples in the form of balanced chemical equations.
Explain the structure of HNO2 and HNO3. OR How does HNO2 act as a reducing agent?
Write the disproportionation reaction of chlorine. OR Why are the Oxyacids of chlorine stronger than oxyacids of Bromine and Iodine? OR Give the names and formulae of oxyacids of chlorine.
Why does damaged tin plated iron get rusted quickly?
Define Markownikov’s rule. Illustrate it with an example. OR State Markownikov’s rule. Give a rune.
Write the chemical equation when KMnO4 (alkaline) reacts with ethyne. OR Why is the aqueous solution of soda ash alkaline in nature? OR Why are the oxides of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals basic in nature? OR Why alkali and alkaline earth metals are the most reactive elements of the periodic table? OR Why the aqueous solution of Na2CO3 is alkaline ir nature? OR Zn, Cd, Hg were placed with alkaline earth metals in Mendeleev’s table. How this confusion is removed in the modern periodic table?
Why there is no free rotation around a dauble bond and a free rotation around a single bond?
Define reforming of petroleum.
How formalin is prepared on the commercial scale from Methyl alcohol? OR How is methylated spirit prepared? OR Give any four uses of methyl alcohol.
Addition of HCN on aldehydes and ketones is a base catalyzed reaction. OR Fehling’s solution reacts with aldehydes to give red ppt. Justify it. OR What is “Fehling’s solution Test” of aldehydes? OR How are aldehydes identified by Tolien’s test?
Give classification of macromolecules. OR What are macromolecules? Give two examples.
Give the important qualities of fertilizer. OR What are fertilizers? Name different nitrogenous fertilizers. OR Write down any four characteristic features for a good fertilizer. OR What is the role of Phosphatic fertilizers in the plants or soil? OR How we can classify fertilizers? OR Why fertilizers are required? OR Give any four important qualities of fertilizer. OR What is a need for fertilizers? OR Distinguish between fertilizer and non-fertilizer compounds.
Give different zones in the rotary kiln and their temperature ranges. OR Define transition temperature with two examples. OR Why is CO2 a gas at room temperature while Si02 is a solid?
Explain the term BOD. OR Explain the following: (I) Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD). (ii) Ecosphere
How does ZnO behave as an amphoteric oxide? OR How do you justify that ZnO is amphoteric in nature?
What are dissacharides? How are they produced from monosaccharides?
What are pesticides? Give their types.
What is an oil refinery? Mention oil refineries in Pakistan.
What are steroids? Give examples.
What is asbestos? Give its uses.
Why is two percent gypsum added to cement? OR What is meant by dead burnt gypsum? OR What is clinker? Why 20% gypsum is added in the cement?
What is milk of magnesia and for which treatment is it used? OR What is milk of magnesia? Give its uses.
How is Aqua Regia prepared? What is its use? OR What is Aqua Regia? How does it dissolve noble metals?
Why HF is weaker acid than HC P ? OR Why HF is a weaker acid than HC1? OR Why HF is a weaker acid than other halogen acids?
How does K2Cr207 act as an oxidizing agent in the presence of H2SO4? OR NO2 is a strong oxidizing agent. Prove with the help of two examples. OR Why fluorine acts as a strong oxidizing agent? OR Which are responsible for oxidizing power. OR Justify that NO acts as an oxidizing agent. OR Write the names of those weak oxidizing agents, which can oxidize aldehyde but not the ketone.
Prepare disilver acetvlide by using acetylene. OR How will you convert acetylene into divinyl acetylene? Give all conditions of the reaction.
Write the reaction of dehydrohalogenation of ethyl bromide to prepare ethene.
Differentiate between homocyclic and heterocy cliccompounds with one example for each. OR What is homocyclic and heterocyclic compounds?
What is wurtz-Fitting Reaction? Give an example.
Define pressure. Give its S.I. unit.
How ethers is prepared by Williamson’s synthesis?
What is smog?
What is the effect of heat on H3PO4?
What are acrylic resins? Give two uses.
What are primary pollutants? Give their names.
How H3B03 can be prepared from colemanite?
What is the utility of reaction of AI with 02?
How Grignard reagents react with epoxides to form alcohol? OR How is alcohol denatured? OR How is carboxyljc acid prepared from Grignard’s reagent?
What is Bakelite? How is it prepared from phenol? OR How is polymer bakelite formed from formaldehyde and phenol in the presence of acid or alkali base? Give reaction.
Give the reaction of phenol with conc. H2SO4 and acetyle chloride. OR How ethanol gives different products with conc. H2SO4 under different conditions?
How acetic acid can be converted into acetone? OR Convert calcium acetate to acetone. OR Prepare acetone from calcium acetate. OR Convert calcium acetate to acetone.
What are zwitter ions? How these react with acids and bases? OR Describe briefly Zwitter ionic structure.
Write down four uses of formaldehyde. OR Convert formaldehyde to Meta formaldehyde. OR Give industrial preparation of formaldehyde.
Explain saponification with an example. OR Discuss saponification number. OR Define saponification number and iodine number.
What is meant by denaturation of proteins?
What are clinkers?
Why metallic character increases from top to bottom in a group of metals? OR Why the metallic character increases from top to bottom in a group of metals? OR Why iodine has metallic luster?
Write four uses of sodium silicate. OR Sodium metal is obtained on commercial level by the Down’s cell. Draw a labeled diagram of Down’s cell which clearly elaborates the extraction of sodium metal. OR How is Down’s cell process better than other processes used for the manufacturing of sodium metal? OR What are the advantages of preparation of sodium by Down’s cell? OR What is sodium bisulphite test?
Write any four application of noble gases. OR Why does the solubility of the noble gases increase in water with increase in atomic number? OR Why solubility of noble gases increase down the group?
Write the reaction of NaOH with C C2 in cold state. OR Give reaction of P205 with cold and hot water.
Why HF is a weker acid than other halogen acids?
What are chelates? Explain with an example.
Define functional group isomerism and give an example.
Alkanes are less reactive than alkenes. Comment. OR Halogenation of alkanes is believed to proceed through free radical mechanism. How is this reaction completed? Give all possible steps with mechanism.
Ethene can be converted into ethyl alcohol. Write equation.
What ate carbohydrates? Why are-they called so? OR Give the classification of carbohydrates and give an example of each.
Give the difference between DNA and RNA.
What is the nature of C-Mg bond in R-Mg-X? OR What is peptide bond? Write down formula of a dipeptide.
How does phenol react with alkali? OR Give physical properties of phenol. OR How phenol is prepared by Dow’s method? OR Why does phenol show acidic nature? OR Why phenol is acidic in nature? OR Phenol behaves as acid. Explain.
Name the essential constituents of cement.
Why wet cleaning is done in paper manufacture? OR What are the common bleaching agents used in paper industry in Pakistan? OR Drano paper making machine. OR Write down two woody and two non-woody raw material for paper pulp manufacture.
What are the secondary pollutants? OR What are primary pollutants and secondary pollutants in atmosphere?
How the gases in the atmosphere absorb?
Define modern periodic law. OR Melting and boiling points of elements increase from left to right up to middle of the periodic table and decrease onward. Give reason. OR Discuss the trend of ionization energy in periodic table. OR Define Mendeleev’s and modern periodic laws.
Why do metals conduct electricity?
What is the action of litmus with aqueous solution of Na,CO3.
What is meant by chemical garden?
Give the formulae of four boric acids.
What happens when NO, is dissolved in water? OR What is the role of dissolved oxygen in measuring the quality of water?
If is a weak acid. Why? OR How do you prepare acetic acid in the laboratory. OR How toluene can be converted to benzoic acid? OR What are basic amino acids? Give two examples. OR What are health hazards of acid rain for humans and animals? OR Write down. four uses of acetic acid. OR What are fatty acids? OR What is acid rain? Give one of its harm to building. OR Show that H3B03 is monobasic acid. OR Write down formulas for (a) palmitic acid (b) stearic acid. OR Write a short note on acidic and basic character of aminoacids. OR What are the responsibilities of nucleic acids? What type of nucleic acids have been discovered. OR What are amino acids? OR How sulphuric acid is manufactured? OR How does picric acid synthesis take place? OR Discuss acid rain. How does it affect our environment? OR Amino acids are simplest protein. Amino acids show dual character both as an acid and base. Give a reaction example to show their dual nature. OR What is acid rain? OR Write down the formulas of picric acid and p-hydroxy benzyl. OR Convert HC = CH into oxalic acid. OR Give reaction of orthoboric acid with NaOH and C2H5OH. OR Give four uses of sulphuric acid. OR HOw does picric acid synthesis take place?
What are typical and non-typical transition elements?
Give reason for the development of colours in the transition complexes.
Define functional group, Give two examples functional group containing oxygen.
What are aromatic hydrocarbons? Give two examples. OR Give four examples of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. OR What are polycyclic aroq are hydrocarbons? Give examples. OR Branched hydrocarbons are better as a fuel as compared to straight chain, explain.
What is Baeyer’s test? What is its use?
What is Cannizzaro’s reaction? Write one example.
What is silver mirror test? What is its importance?
What are polymers? Give two examples. OR What are thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers? OR What are thermoplastic polymers? Give two examples.
What are lipids? Give two physical properties.
What is the difference between glucose and fructose?
What is clinker? OR What is difference between clinker and cement?
What are ecosphere and hydrosphere?
Differentiate between thetmal and catalytic cracking.
What is peptide linkage? Explain with an example.
Why is Ozone layer depleting?
Give important uses of Helium.
Why CO, molecule is non-polar in nature?
Define chromatography. Give its two uses.
What is effect of aeration on quality of raw water?
Define ionization energy OR “Ionization energy increases from left to right in a period”. Justify the statement. OR What factors influence the ionization energy? OR Why ionization energy is always endothermic?
How weathering of potassium feldspar takes place? Give chemical equation also. OR Preparation of potassium chromate. OR Preparation of potassium dichromate. OR Preparation of potassium permangate. OR How will you prepare Ethyne from potassium maleate? Give complete reaction.
What is heat of combustion? OR “N20 supports combustion”. Give two reactions in favour of the statement. OR Why oxygen cannot be determined directly in combustion analysis? OR Give idea about knocking in the internal combustion engine.
How bleaching powder is prepared by Hasenclever’s method?
What is the cause of paramagnetic behaviour?
Define central metal atom or ion.
What are carbocylic compounds? OR Write classification of organic compounds. OR Give a general mechanism for the base-catalysed nudeophilic addition reaction of carbonyl compounds. OR Differentiate between homocycle and heterocyclic compounds with one example for each. OR Write structural formula of the compounds: (a) Carbolic acid. (b) Glycerol. OR What are heterocyclic compounds?
When does sp-hybridization occur?
What is Raney-Nickle? Where is it used? OR Briefly explain the difference between Lindlar’s catalyst and Raney-Nickle catalyst with respect to their composition and use.
Define Aldol condensation. OR What is an Aldol? Give the reaction mechanism for the formation of an aldol.
Define iodine number.
Give mechanism of SN I reactions. OR During SN1 reaction, what is the significance of first step? OR Discuss SN2 reactions of alkyl halides in detail. OR Give only mechanisms for SN2 reaction.
How ethanol is prepared on industrial scale in the world? Give one method. OR Write down any four uses of ethanol. OR Distinguish ethanol and tertiary butyl alcohol by Luca Test.
What is the role of decomposition and burning zones in the manufacturing of cement? PR Give preparation of Portland cement as carried out by Joseph Aspdin. Why it is named so?
How urea is prepared from ammonia?
What is lithosphere?
What are the causes of water pollution? OR What are the types of pollution? Explain each type in detail? OR How are Leather Tanneries causing pollution in water?
Explain alkali metals. OR Alkali metals give ionic hydrides. OR Why ionic hydrides. are very good reducing agents? OR Why are the ionic hydrides reducing in nature? OR Why the alkali metals are strong reducing agent?
What is carbonization?
What is leaving group and substrate?
How cis and trans alkenes are produced? Give reactions.
What do you know about chemical oxygen demand? OR What is the chemical nature of enzymes? Discuss the classification of enzymes? OR Justify that MO is a king of chemicals. OR Give any two chemical tests to distinguish between 1-Butene and 1-Butyne.
Write structure of cholesterol.
Write name of components of environment.
Explain structure of CO2. OR One mole of CO2 and NO2 have same number of molecules. Why? OR Why CO2 molecule is don-polar in nature? ORGive reactions of preparation of urea by using NH3 at CO2.
Give formulas of magnetite and haematite.
Write carbon content in pig iron and wrought iron. OR Carbon monoxide is a main primary air pollutant. OR Give its effects on the human beings. OR Why does carbon have high melting point? OR How is ozone affected by chlorofluoro carbons? Briefly explain. OR How is chlorofluorocarbon destroying the ozone layer? OR Briefly explain the reactivity of carbonyl group. OR In what respects, carbon behaves differently from other members of group. IV-A? OR Give two similarities between carbon and silicon.
Name the organic compound first of all prepared in the laboratory and how?
What are primary and tertiary alkyl halides? Give one example each.
How would you convert CH3COOH to CH3CONH2?
What are Freons and Teflon? OR What is Teflon? Give its uses.
Absolute alcohol can not be prepared by fermentation process, why? OR Why abs lute alcohol cannot be prepared by formation process?
In what way fats and oils are different? OR What are oilsed fats?
What are leachates?
What is ligand? Give types of iigands. OR Define coordination number and coordination ligand. Give one example in each case.
What is aromatization?
What is difference between aldehyde and ketone? OR How will you identify the aldehyde as functional group in the given compound through Benedict solution? Give reaction. OR Give a reaction example of disproportionate reaction of aldehyde.
Write isomers of C2H60.
Which Ester gives banana and orange smell?
What is sacrificial corrosion? OR What is sacrificial corrosion? Explain with an example.
What is “Halofonn Reaction”? Give its uses.
Borate glazes arc better than silicate glazes. Explain.
Define Disproportion reaction.
Define functional group. Give two examples of functional group ebn training oxygen.
Define hydration energy. Explain it will suitable example
Define hydrides. Give their classification.
Define tantomerisrn, give an example.
Define the Reforming process. OR How does cracking and reforming differ from each other?
Define the term atmosphere
Detergents are washing agents. How do detergents affect the environment badly? OR How detergents are threat to aquatic animal life?
Discuss the anomalous behavior of Boron with respect to the members of its own group. OR Give peculiar behaviors of Boron.
Discuss Haki form reaction with one example
Explain electrophilic substitution reactions?
Explain open hearth process for the manufacture of steel.
Explain peculiar nature of beryllium. OR Give the names and formulae of the minerals of Beryllium.
Explain the manufacture of urea by a flow-sheet diagram.
Give advantages of Down’s cell. OR Write down the structure of Mn04 ion. OR Write down four physical properties of ethers. OR Write down mechanism of etherification.
Give four dissimmilarities of oxygen and sulphur
Give reason for the statement Lanthanides contraction controls the atomic size of element of e and it period.
Explain shielding effects.
Give the reaction of be with NaOH. Also give the name of the compound formed. OR Give the two major problems during the working of a diaphragm cell. OR How are proteins denatured? OR What is difference between peptides and proteins? OR Describe the classification of proteins.
How beirzene can be converted to acetophetione, gin its mechanism?
Mention two major problems that may arise in Nelson’s cell.
What arc elimination reactions? Give example of E reaction.
What are Lear-hates and what they contain?
What are azeotropic mixtures?
What is half life method for the determination of order of a reaction?
Give use of lead suboxide.
Define enzyme Name their two properties.
Classify elements essential for plant growth.
What is allotropy? Name the different allotropes of phosphorus.
What happens when white lead is heated in air at about 340°?
What are Ligases Enzymes?
What are Peptides? How are they formed?
What are Polymeric halides? OR Why alkyl halides are reactive than alkmes?
What arts hols? How are they classified?
What is an octane no. and how it is improved?
What is formed when liquid NH3 and CO, react with each other?
What is Mortar?
What is saponittation number?
What is tin plating and what happens when in is damaged?
What is vitreous silica? Give its two uses.
Why calcium is essential for the normal development of plants?
Why is aluminium not found as a free element?
Why is silicone oil preferred over ordinary lubricants? OR What are silicones?